Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Ikea case assignment Essay Example

Ikea case assignment Essay Example Ikea case assignment Essay Ikea case assignment Essay Firstly The KEA organizational structure isnt very hierarchical, everyone is treated equal. An example of this is that managers and regular employees (these are actually referred to as Co-workers) wear the same blue yellow outfits. Managers are expected to do the same things regular employees have to do, so managers and employees stock the shelves together. The organization really treats their employees very well. KEA Is a really big corporation they have stores all over the world, Including stores In he Middle-East, The Far East, The USA, Australia and of course all over Europe. The KEA concept Is working well all over the world, the same values are used everywhere, relatively cheap furniture, a friendly approach and self-service. Of course KEA Is adapting to the local culture when It Is required, small changes In the Middle-East and The Far East. As local values are different from the European values. By example the KEA manuals In the Middle-East doesnt show women putting together the furniture as this is considered a male Job In the Arabic world. Kikes mall missions, oils and values are all in this booklet all employees receive called Testament of a Furniture Dealer. Values stated in the book are simplicity, humility and honesty on both internal and external relations. Kikes Mission is to supply a wide range furniture of good quality and durability for a good price so a wide range of people have access to it. The main target group is young families with an average income. KEA is able to keep the prices low because all components of the furniture are mass produced, also everything is stored in flat packs kits so it doesnt take much space. Also the fact that people have to construct their own furniture at home saves a lot of money. This combined with the good customer service proves to be a good working formula as KEA stores are all over the world. If a customer has trouble moving his lust bought furniture KEA offers car roof racks and even rental KEA vans. KEA is also working hard to make their products environmental friendly, step by step they are working towards a business based on ecological principles. This strategy was created in the late 1 asss as customers grew more environmental conscious and were scooting companies that didnt adapt to the changing environmental demands of the public. The organizational structure of KEA Is set up Like this. ANGINA HOLDING B. V. Is the mall company, which Is owned by the Settling Angina Foundation. All of the departments are a part of the ANGINA HOLDING B. V. The five person committee Is In control of the KEA, If one of the members dies or quits the other four members choose his or her replacement. This way the villous of the company will stay more or less the same. Change and new ideas play an Important role In the KEA work culture Kea case assignment By astronauts KEA is a really big corporation they have stores all over the world, including stores in KEA concept is working well all over the world, the same values are used everywhere, relatively cheap furniture, a friendly approach and self-service. Of course KEA is adapting to the local culture when it is required, small changes in the Middle-East the KEA manuals in the Middle-East doesnt show women putting together the furniture as this is considered a male Job in the Arabic world. Kikes main missions, just bought furniture KEA offers car roof racks and even rental KEA vans. KEA is created in the late sasss as customers grew more environmental conscious and were The organizational structure of KEA is set up like this. ANGINA HOLDING B. V. Is the main company, which is owned by the Stitching Angina The five person committee is in control of the KEA, if one of the members dies or quits the other four members choose his or her replacement. This way the vision of Change and new ideas play an important role in the KEA work culture

Monday, March 2, 2020

The Ultimate AP Chemistry Study Guide

The Ultimate AP Chemistry Study Guide SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Studying for the AP Chemistry exam is a challenging undertaking. There are so many different topics and types of problems that you're expected to master, some of which you might not have fully understood in your class. This AP Chemistry study guide is written to help you effectively navigate the road towards the AP exam. I'll give you all the information and resources you need to create a study plan, review the content, and practice your skills. What’s the Purpose of This AP Chemistry Study Guide? This guide will aid you in preparation for the AP Chemistry exam and any other assessments you encounter in your class.The first section outlines a study plan that will help you review the material effectively before the test.You can also use this plan as general advice for the best way to use practice tests in the context of your studying throughout the year. The next section lists study tipsthat specifically apply to AP Chemistry.It’s nice to have some strategies in hand before you begin prepping so that you get the most out of your time with the material! The section after this deals with the content of the course, divided by chemistry's Big Ideas.I’ll link to notes that provide information detailing each of the content areas and give you some supplemental videos that may help with explanations. Finally, I’ll provide online resources that you can use to test your knowledge of AP Chemistry, including practice multiple-choice quizzes by topic area and sample free-response questions. Alright, let's do this. AP Chemistry Study Plans AP Chemistry has many different components: data interpretation, math problems, concept memorization, logical reasoning.Where do you start? I'll describe the basic study process step-by-step first and then provide an approximate timeline. Step 1: Take and Score an Initial Diagnostic Test Practice tests are available online, through your AP teacher, or in review books.Take your diagnostic test under the same time constraints as the real exam (1 hour 30 minutes for multiple choice and 1 hour 45 minutes for free response).You should aim to take your first full-length practice test around the beginning of your second semester. Side Note: Even though they can be useful, you should alwaysbe wary of practice tests from review books. Whenever possible, try to use official tests from the College Board to judge your score level instead of tests that were written by prep companies. Unofficial tests are often significantly easier or harder than the real AP test. Step 2: Evaluate Your Results When you’re done, go back through your answers and score the test.Keep track of which types of questions you answered incorrectly (or answered correctly because of a lucky guess). This will allow you to collect arepository of concepts that you need to work on before taking the real test. Step 3: Study Weak Content Areas and Do Practice Problems Refer to your notes, review book, or information included later in this guide to refresh your knowledge of ideas that you had trouble with on the practice test.If you’re struggling with a particular type of problem, find a similar problem in your textbook, review book, or online, and walk yourself through the steps of solving it. First, just read the solution explanation.Then, try to do it yourself without looking at the explanation and see if you can find the right answer. If you go through a few problems or questions like this in areas that need work, you will start to build up comfort with the material. Step 4: Take and Score a Second Practice Test When you feel you’ve addressed the main issues you noticed on the first diagnostic test, you can takeanother practice test to measure your improvement. Overview of the Entire Process: Take and score a practice test (3.5-4 hours) Analyze and categorize your mistakes (1-2 hours) Do practice problems and study content that correspond to your areas of weakness on the test (2-3 hours) Take and score a second practice test (3.5-4 hours) After the second practice test, check your progress.If you’re satisfied, you can stop here at nine to 13 hours of studying, but I'd say that's the minimum study time for this test.Assuming you still want to improve or get more comfortable with the format of the exam, you can repeat the cycle as many times as necessary to reach your goals. Oh boy, a study plan that never has to end! AP Chemistry Study Strategies Before we get to notes on content, here are some study tips that you should keep in mind as you review. In a subject like chemistry, there's a huge difference between looking over the material and actually learning it. #1: Start With the Basics AP Chemistry is a subject that builds on itself from the ground up.If you don’t understand the essential reasoning behind the properties of different elements, you’ll have trouble answering more obscure problems down the road. For this reason, your studying should begin with the topics that were covered earliest in the year.If there’s a concept you learned early on that’s still giving you trouble, you should revisit it right away to solidify your understanding.If you don't absorb foundational knowledge before solving complex problems, you’ll end up wasting your time and getting more confused (or memorizing how to solve a specific problem without expanding your understanding of the concept). #2: Do It Yourself When studying a subject that requires step-by-step problem solving, students often read answer explanations and overestimate their levels of understanding.Everything seems so clear when you’re reading about it, but you'll feel different during the AP test when all you have is the problem in front of you. That's why it’s critical to re-do problems yourself after looking at the answer explanations.Learning by doing is the only way to go with chemistry. If you can find the solution on your own while genuinely understanding how you got there, you’ll do well on similar problems when they come up in the future. #3: Double Check for Logic and Units When you finish a chemistry problem, you might be tempted to accept the answer you calculated right away and continue to the next question. Before you do, check to make sure that your answer matches up with what you know about the problem and its scale.Many issues with units and significant figures can happen in chemistry, so you should double check to verify that your answer is in the correct form and makes logical sense. #4: Invest in a Review Book If you have the means, I’d highly recommend buying a review book to supplement independent studying.Review books can provide you with more concise explanations of concepts and better ideas for how to structure your time.They also have practice tests and questions that you can consult as you review different parts of the curriculum.Check out ourarticle on the best AP Chemistry review booksfor more specific ideas. It's time to break open your piggy bank (if only so it doesn't break you open first based on its incredibly disturbing facial expression). AP Chemistry Content First, I have for you a super sweet interactive periodic table!The periodic table is your best friend in AP Chemistry, and you’ll have access to it on the test.You should know all about the different types of elements and what the numbers in the table mean!This other site is also useful for sorting the elements according to their various unique properties. Here are links to some notes for the main topics that fall under each of the "Big Ideas" of the course. The Big Ideas represent six fundamental themes of AP Chemistry under the newly organized curriculum. These resources should help you to review key concepts if you find that you're missing sections in your notes from class: Big Idea 1: The chemical elements are fundamental building materials of matter, and all matter can be understood in terms of arrangement of atoms. These atoms retain their identities in chemical reactions Chemical Foundations Units Scientific method Significant figures Basics of systematic problem-solving Organization/classification of matter Atomic structure and periodicity Electromagnetic radiation Max Planck and quantum theory Atomic spectrum Mass spectrometry Spectroscopy Bohr model Quantum mechanical model Quantum numbers and electron orbitals Coulomb’s Law Periodic trends Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Fundamental laws of chemistry Dalton’s atomic theory Millikan’s oil experiment Rutherford’s metal foil experiment Timeline of milestones in the history of chemistry Atomic structure Types of bonds Chemical formulas for molecules Organization of the periodic table Naming compounds Big Idea 2: Chemical and physical properties of materials can be explained by the structure and arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules and the forces between them Bonding Types of chemical bonds Electronegativity Bond polarity and dipole moments Ions: size and electron configuration London dispersion forces Lewis structures VSEPR Model Covalent Bonding: Orbitals Liquids and Solids Intermolecular forces The liquid state Structures and types of solids Structure and bonding in metals Vapor pressure and state changes Phase diagrams Gases Pressure Gas laws of Boyle, Charles, and Avogadro Ideal gas law Gas stoichiometry Dalton’s law Kinetic Molecular Theory Effusion/diffusion van der Waal’s equation Atmospheric chemistry Gas law practice problems Big Idea 3: Changes in matter involve the rearrangement and/or reorganization of atoms and/or the transfer of electrons Stoichiometry Atomic and molar mass Percent composition of compounds and determining formulas for compounds Structure of chemical equations Balancing chemical equations Limiting reactant problems Percent yield Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry All about water Aqueous solutions and electrolytes Types of reactions (precipitation, acid-base, oxidation-reduction) Half-cell reactions Salts in solution Redox reactions tips and practice problems Big Idea 4: Rates of chemical reactions are determined by details of the molecular collisions Chemical Kinetics Reaction rates Rate laws Reaction mechanisms Catalysis Big Idea 5: The laws of thermodynamics describe the essential role of energy and explain and predict the direction of changes in matter Chemical Equilibrium Equilibrium conditions Equilibrium constants Solving equilibrium problems Le Chatelier’s principle Thermochemistry All about energy Enthalpy and calorimetry Hess’s Law Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy Gibbs Free energy (G) Entropy changes in chemical reactions Free energy and chemical reactions Free energy ...and pressure ...and equilibrium ...and work The Nucleus Nuclear stability and radioactive decay Kinetics of radioactive decay Nuclear transformations Thermodynamic stability of the nucleus Nuclear fission and fusion Big Idea 6: Any bond or intermolecular attraction that can be formed can be broken. These two processes are in a dynamic competition, sensitive to initial conditions and external perturbations Properties of Solutions Solution composition Factors affecting solubility Vapor pressure of solutions Boiling point and freezing point variation Osmotic pressure Colloids Solubility and complex ion equilibria Solubility and solubility products Common Ion effects Precipitation Acids and Bases The pH scale Calculating pH Acid-base properties of salts and oxides Calculating acid strength Lewis Acid-Base Model Solving acid-base problems Acid-Base equilibria Buffered solutions Titration Acid-base indicators Supplemental Videos Bozeman Science playlist of AP chemistry essentials ChemGuy video lectures that cover the entire AP curriculum Khan Academy videos on every topic in chemistry This is how jazzed up you'll be when you watch these videos. Online Practice Resources This is a list of free online resources that have practice tests and problems that may aid in your studying. If you need more practice, you should also consider buying a review book or asking your AP teacher for additional official practice tests. College Board The College Board has free-response questions (along with scoring guidelines) from past tests (2006 to 2013) on its site for AP Chemistry.You can also find free-response questions from 2014 to 2017on the AP Student section of the College Board website. All of these are great for practice! ScienceGeek I like this site because it’s not all multiple choice. You have to solve problems completely on your own, which awesome practice for the AP test.There are tons of different activities that relate to all aspects of the course, and you can check your answers as you find them.This is a helpful resource for practice problems that will allow you to develop a strong fundamental understanding of the concepts. Albert iO Albert has sets of practice questions organized by concept and Big Idea.Each question is labeled Easy, Medium, or Hard, so you’ll know whether you’ve mastered the material.The site also records your progress and the accuracy of your answers in each topic area to make it easier to identify where your skills still need work.All questions are multiple choice, so make sure you also practice open-ended questions elsewhere (or do some of the problems without looking at the answer choices). Varsity Tutors This site has a bunch of practice tests on all topics related to AP Chemistry. Each test has a difficulty rating along with a listing of the average amount of time required to complete the questions.These tests are multiple choice, but there are plenty that will ask you to solve stoichiometry problems or balance equations.Just like Albert iO, once you’re well-versed in the material, you can try to do the problems without looking at the answer choices. Adrian Dingle’s Chemistry Pages This is a resource that offers short multiple choice quizzes on all topics in AP chemistry.The quizzes are only five questions long each, so they’re good for quick review of concepts that you already know fairly well. Barron’s Practice Test Barron’s provides a free online sample test with the same format as the real AP Chemistry exam. The multiple-choice is scored automatically, and free-response scoring guidelines are provided. Wander the Barron wasteland of your mind. Conclusion AP Chemistry is tough. It covers so much information, and most of it is complex and challenging to understand.Take a diagnostic test before you start studying so you can devise a plan that fits your needs, whether that means studying for 10 hours or 40 hours.I’d recommend that you use the study strategies and supplemental resources in this guide to bolster your understanding of the material.If you’re willing to work hard to master every topic in AP Chemistry, the test will be a much less stressful experience! What's Next? If you're still planning out your future high school schedule, take a look at this guide that will help you decide which AP classes to take in addition to chemistry. Do you plan on taking the SAT II in addition to your AP exams? Find out how subject tests compare to AP tests and which scores are more important for college applications. How high does your AP score have to be to qualify for college credit? Learn more about getting credit for AP classes in college. Want to improve your SAT score by 240 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Relations Of Marketing With My Major Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Relations Of Marketing With My Major - Essay Example Management  on the other hand is the act of using available resources well in organizing people with an aim of achieving set goals and objectives. Management involves planning, controlling, decision-making, leadership, and coordination. Management involves company managers and all employees of a company. Marketing relates with my management in many ways aimed at promoting business operations. Management is one of the determinants of marketing. Actually, the management makes marketing decisions while the employees and staff implements the decisions. The management decides what the company will produce, how much will be sold, the selling price, marketing methods, and the staff to carry out marketing. The management organizes the whole organization and the marketing staff. Indeed, the management gives marketing duties and shows how they will take place. In addition, the management trains the marketing team on the marketing strategies to use and the marketing language to use. The manag ement plays a very important role in establishing a good marketing environment. The mode of association between the marketers and the customers originates from the management. The management forms the basis of any marketing strategy that the employees use in selling the company’s products and services. A good marketing strategy encourages the participation of the management and the employees. Indeed, the management coordinates all marketing activities between the company and the customers. The management achieves this by allocating time, locations, and availing materials necessary for marketing operations. The management is also involved in planning all operations of an organization including the marketing operations where the managers are the leaders of such activities. The management not only recruits the marketing team, but also determines the remuneration of the marketing team. In addition, to determine

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words - 9

Assignment - Essay Example For running a nursing home, a unit can be treated as cost of a bed, payment to employees and other such services. Therefore, operating expenses include: â€Å"Lean Cost Management is another approach to financial measurement that makes waste and the costs it creates visible, and hence actionable, wherever and whenever it occurs in an organization† (Hobbs, 2011). Following this approach, a business can very well eliminate excessive transaction costs, re-ordering costs; minimize inventories and all other unnecessary costs involved. The lean cost management technique brings into notice all excessive costs and helps the business to reduce it accordingly. It foregrounds the required agility with which the level of production can be increased as well as the cost that can be reduced without hampering quality of products. Its aim is to reduce seven forms of wastages in manufacturing made by any business, like, unsold inventory, which is considered as overproduction as per this method. Lean costing technique is a perfect example of costing in an agile environment. There are various expenses that are incurred by a business. These overheads expenses can be effortlessly allocated by using lean cost management and operating costing technique. Based on these techniques, expenses for each overhead incurred by a business can be noticed more prominently and allocation of funds can be done in an effective and methodological manner. These cost management techniques allow a business to forecast the cost and lessen it as per necessity. Therefore, the technique that Hugh Knock had decided for Pedro’s business was rightly the operating costing and lean cost management method (Gupta, 2009). According to Knock, this method will help Pedro to find out the unnecessary unit cost involved in his future business and curb it accordingly. Hugh also stated the necessity of bigger business to allocate the cost per unit of their service. He made the statement

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Essay --

Tribal Rights and Sovereignty of the Yakama Nation and Klamath Tribes Quinn Buchwald AP United States Government, 1st Period Ms. Peck December 17, 2013 The Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation is a sovereign Native American tribal entity in Washington State. The tribe's reservation is located in southern Washington State and is east of the Cascade Mountains. The reservation is 2,185.94 square miles and has a population of over 30,000. The tribe itself has almost 11,000 enrolled members. The Yakama Tribe consists of multiple groups of Native Americans, including the Klikitat, Palus, Walla Walla, Wanapam, Wishram, and Yakama. These people have lived here for thousands of years and have developed their own very unique way of life and culture. They belong to a larger cultural group known as the Sahaptin people, who live throughout the Columbia River Basin and Plateau in central, eastern, and southern Washington State and in northern Oregon. The Yakama life style was dependant on their surroundings and environment. They heavily relied on wildlife, game, and fish for their sustenance, and where solely hunter-gatherer societ ies before European and American contact. Due to their close connection and reliance on the environment, the Yakama highly respected nature and were always aware of their impact upon it. They believe that everything has a purpose and an important place in the natural order. With the expansion the United States into the Pacific Northwest and the rapid encroachment of white settlers into their territory, the Yakama signed the "Treaty with the Yakima" with the United States government in 1855. The Yakama people were able to negotiate for many tribal rights due to their strategic and powerful po... Sovereignty, Ethics, and Data-Sharing Issues." Environmental Health Perspectives 120 (2011): 6-10. Print. The Klamath Tribes. The Klamath Tribes, 2012. Web. 16 Dec. 2013. OFFICIAL SITE OF THE CONFEDERATED TRIBES OF THE YAKAMA NATION. Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, 2010. Web. 16 Dec. 2013. "A Short History of the Klamath Tribe." A Short History of the Klamath Tribe. The Klamath Tribes, 1985. Web. 16 Dec. 2013. United States. Department of the Interior. National Parks Service. Memorandum on Government-to-Government Relations with Native American Tribal Governments. By William J. Clinton. National Parks Service, 4 May 1994. Web. 16 Dec. 2013. United States. Dept. of State. "Treaty with the Yakima, 1855." Yakama Nation Archives. Print. "YN CHC :: Yakama History." Yakama Nation Museum and Cultural Center, n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2013.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Effective Training †Expectancy Theory Essay

Expectancy theory maintains that people will make an effort to achieve a standard of performance if they perceive that it will be rewarded by a desirable outcome (Wilson, 1999), giving more effort will result in better performance, these probable organizational rewards are valued by the employee, and better job performance will result to organizational rewards which includes an increase in benefits or salary. Desirable outcome is essentially a product of individual circumstances and perceptions and is therefore a subject to change. According to Wilson, at one time, lifelong employment and security of tenure at an equitable level of remuneration may have been the driving force for many employees. Those who have suffered the effect s of downsizing and redundancy are now likely to view the world in different manner, where jobs offering short term and reasonably remunerated employment prospects are more attractive than no job at all, and similarly, those in employment and those seeking employment are likely to have a positive view of work offering the prospect of development of differentiated and transferrable skills, as an investment in their future employability (Wilson, 1999). If one of the managers will say that he doesn’t have time for this theory stuff and he wants real-world training that will help him in his job, I will tell him first that, outsourcing, downsizing, delayering, and casualisation of jobs are all fashionable but these trends affect employees’ explicit or implicit relationships with their employer, and similarly, reduced career oppurtunities, shorter tenure, the need for transferrable skills to assist employability, and increased used of fixed term contracts weaken the traditional ties of loyalty to their company’s destiny psychologically as well as formally (Wilson, 1999). I will tell him that he should do anything which will encourage his employees to trust their organization or company because it is important to earn employees’ trust and loyalty to the company to achieve better productivity.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Debate on Open Source Software - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2273 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Law Essay Type Research paper Tags: Intellectual Property Essay Did you like this example? Intellectual Property Debate on Open Source Software TABLE OF CONTENTS S. No. Titles Page Number Introduction 5 Intellectual Property Dilemma 5 Copyright Protection 7 Patent Protection 9 Trademark Protection 10 Trade Secret 10 Conclusion 11 INTRODUCTION Digitalization has led to a movement towards redefinition of poverty: poverty no longer to be identified in terms of material deprivations but in access to information in cyberspace.[1] The first United Nations World Summit on Information Society (WSIS) has recognized the links between information technology and human rights. Drahos, a renounced philosopher of Intellectual Property, categorized à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Informationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ as primary goods, stating that, it may be perhaps most important primary goods when one consider its role in oneà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s life, the economy and the development of knowledge, culture and its impact on power in a society.[2] Access to knowledge advocates have proven remarkably creative and successful in recent years, not only in contesting the contours of intellectual property laws, but also in identifying weakness and failures in the regime of intellectual property, spaces where new regimes for generating and managing k nowledge and knowledge good might evolve. The most prominent example in the arena of activism by access to knowledge advocates relates to the attempts at the World Intellectual Property Organization to introduce new multilateral agreements to defend the rights of the visually impaired and rebalance the current copyright regime.[3] INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY DILEMMA Open source software is the paradigm shift in the field of Software development. Opposite to conventional and closed web resources, which emphasis on unrestricted accessibility to the source code of the program. Also unlikely proprietary software, open source software are not Solidarity or closed group task. It is an community based model developed through virtual interaction of communities. The open source development model is not subject to prejudice based on maturity, education or experience. Thus open source model allows larger groups to interact, and increases accessibility to many more resources, keeping transactio n cost minimal. It is a misconception that open source program are placed in public domain; they are very much protected by intellectual property laws, but distributed under terms which instead of being restrictive promote access. This system of software invites programmers globally, to freely copy, share, and modify software. This way it challenges all established norms of intellectual property.[4] On another side, a primary concern is ensuring that people must at least have access to internet via free access points. Striking balance between ensuring the human right of access to information while determining appropriate legal limitations and prosecution for inappropriate use is a significant challenge. From the perspective of consumers, however, copyright in a digital environment is often experienced as an instrument primarily used to exclude users from information which was freely available.[5] There is another view that database or software can also be categorized as a d erivative work as collection of work or collection of data. The main difference between obtaining protection for open source software as compilations and as collection is the test of originality. As a matter of fact, the required test of originality is imposed on selection or arrangement of the content of database but not on the content itself.[6] Usually, Copyright laws were available to protect literal and artistic work. Computer Program being a written work with utilitarian character posed difficulty to be categorized under Intellectual Property. Trade secret laws was traditional vehicle of software protection, while copyright chosen as the legislative vehicle to protect the literal expression of software. Patent law protects the technological expressions of the software while trademarks emphasis on moral rights.[7]It is not necessary that all forms of protection are available for software; developers may chose to rely on none or one or two or all of them. In a world which is turning into a global village, where book can be ordered online and shared; or where library can be found to read novel or to do research for a school project or in such circumstances wherein a book published in one country can be sent to another in matter of seconds for printing and distribution there, should not it mean that everyone benefited? Whether Internet access as a fundamental human right is also essential? However, global information society has given rise to international barriers to read for print disabled people that can and ought to be removed at the level of WIPO. COPYRIGHT PROTECTION Open source movement today is based completely upon copyright protection. It also reflects a shift in traditional notions of copyright of licensing, development and ownership. Contrary to traditional notion copyright in Open Source Software helps to promote access to information rather than restrict information by the way of licensing. It facilitates exchange of information and ideas in way that a normal copyright could not provide. Many authors and IP philosophers think that it is an imperfect use of copyright protection.[8] There are two philosophical views on copyright protection for Open Source Software. One view is broader view which provides expansive protection, bringing whole information technology range from program structure, sequence and organizations within its Scope. On other hand, narrower view limits the scope of protection by exercising the non-copyright elements before determining the computer programà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s overall copyright protection.[9] The concept of Copyright was not created to protect this online information; use of copyright is not adequate. However, multiplicity of views on this topic crushed by the success of copyright law protection for these Open Source Software. The WIPO in 1996 adopted the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"WIPO internet treaties.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ During this conference, the issue of unauthorized communicatio n over the internet was intensely debated; but ultimate outcome is neutral. This issue is left to the national legislation to determine. As per this treaty the provisions for communications for the wireless means but limits itself in its application.[10] However, this treaty ignored to take into consideration of issues like harboring information, providing digital connections for transmission and online communications. As per Indian laws, Sec 2(w) of Information Technology Act, 2000 defines the term à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"intermediaryà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ includes intermediary with respect to any particular electronic message means any person on behalf of other receives, stores or transmits that message or provides any services with respect to that message. All telecom service providers, internet service providers, search engines, online payments sites, web-hosting service providers, online auction sites and cyber cafÃÆ' © etc., would fall within the exemption granted under Section 79 of Information Technology Act. Section 81 of this Act gives this Act overriding effect over Copyright Act and Patent Act. The Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines) Rules, 2011 have wide scope. It functions in a manner that the intermediaries are require to impose a set of rules and regulations on users that include a prohibition on posting infringing content online. Any person aggrieved by alleged infringing content on the internet, is therefore entitled to ask the internet intermediary to take such material down form site. However these guidelines do not provide creator of the complaint to respond to this content. They even do not provide for the intermediaries to inform the user who posted the content regarding the complaint. Intermediaries which do not comply with take down notice lose protection of safe-habour.[11] The United States is the hub for the entertainment industry that supplies content to users worldwide. Thus, its law on IP enforcement, as an à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"IP exportingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ country is based on concerns over increasing trade in and access to counterfeits as it destroys markets for originals and devices consumers. These countries see Indian Laws as protectionists.[12] PATENT PROTECTION There can be possibility of Patent protection for open source software. The arguments in favor of patent protection of open source software are mostly in favor of large corporate. These patent processes enhance collateral and negotiating power in the corporate arena. Large corporate like IBM, Phillips, Sony and Samsung have expressed interest interests in Open Source Software development. These companies maintain their traditional corporate approach as well as continue to acquire software patents. However, Software Patents threat do have an moral and economic deliberating effect on individuals and small developer companies, which are real backbone of open source innovation and proliferation. Arguments against software patents ra nge from the procedural to theoretical. The procedural arguments vilify the patent officeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s patent grants and procedure in computer software. They challenge prolonged patent term, relaxed standards of non-obviousness for building-block programs, opaque prosecution process, non-disclosure of source code, abuse of continuation fillings etc. The theoretical arguments, perceive software patents as the very à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"antitheisà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ of innovation by creating an à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"anticommonsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ by which large number of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"building blockà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ programs become legally available. Further, software patents pose a veritable threat to open source model. If infringement of a proprietary program by an open source program, even a minimal bit is confirmed, it would essentially bring its development to an effective stop, at least in open source arena. Through license provisions, the open source software approach seeks to extend the effect of the copyleft reciprocal obligation from copyright to patent terming the concept as open patent movement.[13] Thus, the software developers also grants permission to users to practice the patents held by him, when distribution of software occurs. The work could used as it is, or improved, in which case the patent improvement would have to be licensed to the institution that holds the original patent, and from which the original work was licensed. It also provides immunity to the licensees from infringement threats. There is a fundamental difference in the treatment of improvements under copyright law and patent law. This is primarily because of the copyright ownerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s statutory entitlement to control improvements, i.e., derivative works of a copyrighted work; a patent on the other hand does not have any particular right to advances. Secondly, under common law copyright protection is instantaneous as from creation but patent protection requires registr ation. TRADEMARK PROTECTION Using certification marks as opposed to trademarks gives recognition to the open source approach as opposed to a particular open source software product. This also avoids several hassels under trademark law like policing of the mark and ensure proper attribution while allowing greater flexibility in usage and shifting equal onus of responsibility on all the developers. TRADE SECRETS Any information which has got certain commercial value and which provides commercial advantage to the owner can be called as Trade Secret.[14] As long as certain information is kept confidential away from all others it enjoys the status of Trade Secret. Trade Secret laws were used in the early phased of computing technology, when software was individually distributed under tight contractual control. Trade Secrets were only present in common law, today we have no legislature to enforce trade sectrets. However, with technological advancement it remains no longer adeq uate. Open source software concept is perfectly in conflict with ideology of trade secret laws. Trade Secret laws fail to provide protection to Open Source Software. CONCLUSION Information is not scarce. There are many unique challenges that are faced in this age of information. Information is the means through which the mind expands and increases its capacity to achieve its goals, often as the result from input from other mind. With the internet today transcending all national boundaries, the protection of Intellectual Property and penalizing its infringement over the world-wide-web has become even more difficult, given the territorial nature of the grant of the intellectual property rights.Further, time necessitate that certain guidelines should be laid down for addressing Open Source Software under Intellectual Property Laws. The works which are in public domain can be protected where in its presentation, the choice, the grouping of these elements it bears the personal impr int of the author. In a nutshell, instead of focusing on the debate as a means, the focus should be on ends. The need of era is efficient and cheap software. It is unreasonable, not to encourage any capable production efforts. These both approaches need a balance to achieve development of commerce. Is any one of the Intellectual Property Protection is adequate to protect whole of the Open Source Software system? The answer cannot be objective as we have to maintain perfect balance. The Open Source concept has evolved to the broader innovative concept and the same model is being applied in other fields too. 1 Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Debate on Open Source Software" essay for you Create order [1] UPENDRA BAXI; The Future of Human Rights; Oxford University Press, Delhi; 2008 ed.; pp.234. [2] PETER DRAHOS; The Philosophy of Intellectual Property Rights; Dartmouth Publishing Company; 1996 ed.; pp. 171. [3] TANIA SEBASTIAN; à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Copyright Worldà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ and Access to Information: Conjoined via the Internet; Journal of Intellectual Property Rights; vol. 17, May 2012; pp235. [4]VIKRANT NARAYAN VASUDEVA;Open Source Software Paradigm and Intellectual Property Rights;Journal of Intellectual Property Rights; National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources, CSIR, New Delhi; November 2012; vol. 17(6) pp. 511. [5] GINSBURG JANE, How copyright got a Bad Name for Itself; Columbia Journal of Law and the Arts; vol. 26(1), 2002; pp. 61. [6] NAZURA ABDUL MANAP, SITI NAAISHAH HAMBALI, PARDIS MOSLEMZADEH TEHRANI; Intellectual Creation in Database: A Superfluous Test?; Journal of Intellectual Property Rights; vol. 18, July 2013; pp. 3 69. [7]Ibid. [8] TANIA SEBASTIAN; à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Copyright Worldà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ and Access to Information: Conjoined via the Internet; Journal of Intellectual Property Rights; vol. 17, May 2012; pp235. [9] Supra Note 3. [10] Article 8 15, World Intellectual Property Organization Internet Treaty, 1996. [11] VIKRANT NARAYAN VASUDEVA;Open Source Software Paradigm and Intellectual Property Rights;Journal of Intellectual Property Rights; National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources, CSIR, New Delhi; November 2012; vol. 17(6) pp. 511. [12] AAKANSHA KUMAR; Internet Intermediary (ISP) Liability for Contributory Copyright Infringement in USA and India: Lack of Uniformity as a Trade Barrier; Journal of Intellectual Property Rights; vol. 19, July 2014; pp. 272. [13] BROWN C; Copyleft, the Disguised Copyright: Why Legislative Copyright Reform is Superior to Copyright Licenses; University of Missouri- Kansas City Lake Review; vol. 78(2), 2010; pp. 749. [14] M.D. KRISHNA, Confidential Information and Trade Secrets, Intellectual Property Rights; Dr CB Raju Serieal Publications; New Delhi, 2006, 1st ed.